RFID tag systems and their frequencies
RFID systems are divided into three categories by the frequency band within which they operate: low-frequency RFID, high-frequency RFID, and ultra-high frequency RFID. They are categorized based on the different frequency ranges. For instance, the LF RFID tag manufacturer covers a frequency range between 30 kHz to 300 kHz. HF RFID tag manufacturer covers the frequency range between 3 to 30 MHz. When it comes to UHF RFID tag manufacturer, deals with very high-frequency bands from 300 MHz to 3 GHz.
The low-frequency RFID band covers the range of frequencies from 30 kHz to 300 kHz. Usually, this RFID system operates at the frequency 125 kHz, some of this tag also operates at 134 kHz. This low-frequency band offers a short read range of 10 cm and has a slower read speed as compared to higher frequencies, but it is not sensitive to radio wave interference. Low-frequency RFID applications include livestock tracking and access control. The Low-frequency range is not considered a truly global application due to small differences in the frequency range and power levels all over the world.
The High-frequency RFID ranges from 3 to 30 MHz. Most of the high-frequency RFID systems operate at a frequency of 13.56 MHz with reading ranges from 10 cm to 1 m. The high-frequency tag systems experience medium sensitivity to interference. This RFID is commonly used for payment, ticketing, and data transfer applications.
There are numerous High-frequency RFID standards in place, like the ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092 RFID standards for Near Field Communication, a short-range technology that is used for data exchange between different devices. Other HF RFID standards comprise the ISO/IEC 14443 A and ISO/IEC 14443 standards for MIFARE technology. It is used in smart cards and also proximity cards, and the JIS X 6319-4, which is a system of smart cards commonly used in electronic money cards.
Ultra-high frequency RFID:
The ultra-high frequency RFID band covers the range between 300 MHz and 3 GHz. RAIN RFID systems fulfill with the UHF RFID tag manufacturer of Gen2 standard and use a frequency range of the 860 to 960 MHz band. However, there is some inconsistency in frequency from one region to another region, RAIN tag RFID systems in most countries operate between the range 900 and 915 MHz bands.
The read passive UHF systems range is as long as 12 m, and ultra-high frequency tag RFID has a faster data transfer rate as compared to low frequency and high-frequency. This ultra-high RFID is the most sensitive to interference, but many of the UHF product manufacturers found different ways of designing tags, projections, and readers to keep performance ultra-high even in difficult environments. Passive UH frequency tags are easier and inexpensive to manufacture as compared to LF tags and HF tags.
The RAIN tag RFID is used frequently in a wide variety of applications, ranging from retail inventory management to wireless device configuration to pharmaceutical anti-counterfeiting. The new RFID majority projects are using UHF as contrasting to low frequency or high-frequency, making it the fastest-growing segment of the tag RFID market.